initial bloom filter import

dev/timer
Christian Mehlis 10 years ago
parent 93e470eb80
commit 5a45d15894

@ -82,6 +82,9 @@ endif
ifneq (,$(findstring ieee802154,$(USEMODULE)))
DIRS += net/ieee802154
endif
ifneq (,$(findstring bloom,$(USEMODULE)))
DIRS += bloom
endif
all: $(BINDIR)$(MODULE).a
@for i in $(DIRS) ; do $(MAKE) -C $$i ; done ;

@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
INCLUDES = -I../include -I$(RIOTBASE)/core/include
MODULE = bloom
include $(RIOTBASE)/Makefile.base

@ -0,0 +1,267 @@
/******************************************************************************
* bloom.c
* ```````
* Bloom filters
*
* HISTORY
* {x, y, z}
* A Bloom filter is a probibalistic : : :
* data structure with several interesting /|\ /|\ /|\
* properties, such as low memory usage, / | X | X | \
* asymmetric query confidence, and a very / |/ \|/ \| \
* speedy O(k) membership test. / | | \ \
* / /| /|\ |\ \
* Because a Bloom filter can . . . . . . . . .
* accept any input that can be 00000000001000101010101010100010000000000
* hashed effectively (such as " " "
* strings), that membership test \ | /
* tends to draw a crowd. TNSTAAFL, but \ | /
* as caveats go, the Bloom filters' are \ | /
* more interesting than incapacitating. \|/
* :
* Most notably, it can tell you with certainty {w}
* that an item 'i' is *not* a member of set 's',
* but it can only tell you with some finite
* probability whether an item 'i' *is* a member
* of set 's'.
*
* Still, along with the intriguing possibility of using bitwise AND and OR
* to compute the logical union and intersection of two filters, the cheap
* cost of adding elements to the filter set, and the low memory requirements,
* the Bloom filter is a good choice for many applications.
*
* NOTES
*
* Let's look more closely at the probability values.
*
* Assume that a hash function selects each array position with equal
* probability. If m is the number of bits in the array, and k is the number
* of hash functions, then the probability that a certain bit is not set
* to 1 by a certain hash function during the insertion of an element is
*
* 1-(1/m).
*
* The probability that it is not set to 1 by any of the hash functions is
*
* (1-(1/m))^k.
*
* If we have inserted n elements, the probability that a certain bit is
* set 0 is
*
* (1-(1/m))^kn,
*
* Meaning that the probability said bit is set to 1 is therefore
*
* 1-([1-(1/m)]^kn).
*
* Now test membership of an element that is not in the set. Each of the k
* array positions computed by the hash functions is 1 with a probability
* as above. The probability of all of them being 1, which would cause the
* algorithm to erroneously claim that the element is in the set, is often
* given as
*
* (1-[1-(1/m)]^kn)^k ~~ (1 - e^(-kn/m))^k.
*
* This is not strictly correct as it assumes independence for the
* probabilities of each bit being set. However, assuming it is a close
* approximation we have that the probability of false positives descreases
* as m (the number of bits in the array) increases, and increases as n
* (the number of inserted elements) increases. For a given m and n, the
* value of k (the number of hash functions) that minimizes the probability
* is
*
* (m/n)ln(2) ~~ 0.7(m/n),
*
* which gives the false positive probability of
*
* 2^-k ~~ 0.6185^(m/n).
*
* The required number of bits m, given n and a desired false positive
* probability p (and assuming the optimal value of k is used) can be
* computed by substituting the optimal value of k in the probability
* expression above:
*
* p = (1 - e^(-(((m/n)ln(2))*(n/m))))^((m/n)ln(2)),
*
* which simplifies to
*
* ln(p) = -(m/n) * (ln2)^2.
*
* This results in the equation
*
* m = -((n*ln(p)) / ((ln(2))^2))
*
* The classic filter uses
*
* 1.44*log2(1/eta)
*
* bits of space per inserted key, where eta is the false positive rate of
* the Bloom filter.
*
* AUTHOR
* Jason Linehan (patientulysses@gmail.com)
*
* LICENSE
* Public domain.
*
******************************************************************************/
#include <limits.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include "bloom.h"
#define SETBIT(a,n) (a[n/CHAR_BIT] |= (1<<(n%CHAR_BIT)))
#define GETBIT(a,n) (a[n/CHAR_BIT] & (1<<(n%CHAR_BIT)))
#define ROUND(size) ((size + CHAR_BIT - 1) / CHAR_BIT)
/******************************************************************************
* bloom_new Allocate and return a pointer to a new Bloom filter.
* `````````
* @size : size of the bit array in the filter
* @nfuncs: the number of hash functions
* Returns: An allocated bloom filter
*
* USAGE
* For best results, make 'size' a power of 2.
*
******************************************************************************/
struct bloom_t *bloom_new(size_t size, size_t num_hashes, ...) {
struct bloom_t *bloom;
va_list hashes;
int n;
/* Allocate Bloom filter container */
if (!(bloom = malloc(sizeof(struct bloom_t)))) {
return NULL;
}
/* Allocate Bloom array */
if (!(bloom->a = calloc(ROUND(size), sizeof(char)))) {
free(bloom);
return NULL;
}
/* Allocate Bloom filter hash function pointers */
if (!(bloom->hash = (hashfp_t *)malloc(num_hashes *sizeof(hashfp_t)))) {
free(bloom->a);
free(bloom);
return NULL;
}
/* Assign hash functions to pointers in the Bloom filter */
va_start(hashes, num_hashes);
for (n = 0; n < num_hashes; n++) {
bloom->hash[n] = va_arg(hashes, hashfp_t);
}
va_end(hashes);
/*
* Record the number of hash functions (k) and the number of bytes
* in the Bloom array (m).
*/
bloom->k = num_hashes;
bloom->m = size;
return bloom;
}
/******************************************************************************
* bloom_del Delete a Bloom filter.
* `````````
* @bloom : The condemned.
* Returns: nothing.
*
******************************************************************************/
void bloom_del(struct bloom_t *bloom)
{
free(bloom->a);
free(bloom->hash);
free(bloom);
}
/******************************************************************************
* bloom_add Add a string to a Bloom filter.
* `````````
* @bloom : Bloom filter
* @s : string to add
* Returns: nothing.
*
* CAVEAT
* Once a string has been added to the filter, it cannot be "removed"!
*
******************************************************************************/
void bloom_add(struct bloom_t *bloom, const char *s)
{
unsigned int hash;
int n;
for (n = 0; n < bloom->k; n++) {
hash = (unsigned int)bloom->hash[n](s);
SETBIT(bloom->a, (hash % bloom->m));
}
}
/******************************************************************************
* bloom_check Determine if a string is in the Bloom filter.
* ```````````
* @bloom : Bloom filter
* @s : string to add
* Returns: false if string does not exist in the filter, otherwise true.
*
* NOTES
*
* So this is the freakshow that bored programmers pay a nickel to get a
* peek at, step right up. This is the way the membership test works.
*
* The string 's' is hashed once for each of the 'k' hash functions, as
* though we were planning to add it to the filter. Instead of adding it
* however, we examine the bit that we *would* have set, and consider its
* value.
*
* If the bit is 1 (set), the string we are hashing may be in the filter,
* since it would have set this bit when it was originally hashed. However,
* it may also be that another string just happened to produce a hash value
* that would also set this bit. That would be a false positive. This is why
* we have k > 1, so we can minimize the likelihood of false positives
* occuring.
*
* If every bit corresponding to every one of the k hashes of our query
* string is set, we can say with some probability of being correct that
* the string we are holding is indeed "in" the filter. However, we can
* never be sure.
*
* If, however, as we hash our string and peek at the resulting bit in the
* filter, we find the bit is 0 (not set)... well now, that's different.
* In this case, we can say with absolute certainty that the string we are
* holding is *not* in the filter, because if it were, this bit would have
* to be set.
*
* In this way, the Bloom filter can answer NO with absolute surety, but
* can only speak a qualified YES.
*
******************************************************************************/
bool bloom_check(struct bloom_t *bloom, const char *s)
{
unsigned int hash;
int n;
for (n = 0; n < bloom->k; n++) {
hash = (unsigned int)bloom->hash[n](s);
if (!(GETBIT(bloom->a, (hash % bloom->m)))) {
return false;
}
}
return true; /* ? */
}

@ -0,0 +1,22 @@
#ifndef _BLOOM_FILTER_H
#define _BLOOM_FILTER_H
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <stdint.h>
typedef unsigned int (*hashfp_t)(const char *);
struct bloom_t {
size_t m;
size_t k;
unsigned char *a;
hashfp_t *hash;
};
struct bloom_t *bloom_new(size_t size, size_t num_hashes, ...);
void bloom_del(struct bloom_t *bloom);
void bloom_add(struct bloom_t *bloom, const char *s);
bool bloom_check(struct bloom_t *bloom, const char *s);
#endif

@ -0,0 +1,164 @@
/******************************************************************************
* djb2_hash
* `````````
* HISTORY
* This algorithm (k=33) was first reported by Dan Bernstein many years
* ago in comp.lang.c. Another version of this algorithm (now favored by
* bernstein) uses XOR:
*
* hash(i) = hash(i - 1) * 33 ^ str[i];
*
* The magic of number 33 (why it works better than many other constants,
* prime or not) has never been adequately explained.
*
******************************************************************************/
static inline unsigned long djb2_hash(const char *str)
{
unsigned long hash;
int c;
hash = 5381;
while ((c = (unsigned char) * str++)) {
hash = ((hash << 5) + hash) + c; /* hash * 33 + c */
}
return hash;
}
/******************************************************************************
* sdbm_hash
* `````````
* HISTORY
* This algorithm was created for sdbm (a public-domain reimplementation
* of ndbm) database library. It was found to do well in scrambling bits,
* causing better distribution of the keys and fewer splits. it also
* happens to be a good general hashing function with good distribution.
*
* The actual function is
*
* hash(i) = hash(i - 1) * 65599 + str[i];
*
* What is included below is the faster version used in gawk. [there is
* even a faster, duff-device version] the magic constant 65599 was picked
* out of thin air while experimenting with different constants, and turns
* out to be a prime. this is one of the algorithms used in berkeley db
* (see sleepycat) and elsewhere.
*
******************************************************************************/
static inline unsigned long sdbm_hash(const char *str)
{
unsigned long hash;
int c;
hash = 0;
while ((c = (unsigned char) * str++)) {
hash = c + (hash << 6) + (hash << 16) - hash;
}
return hash;
}
/******************************************************************************
* lose lose
* `````````
* HISTORY
* This hash function appeared in K&R (1st ed) but at least the reader
* was warned:
*
* "This is not the best possible algorithm, but it has the merit
* of extreme simplicity."
*
* This is an understatement. It is a terrible hashing algorithm, and it
* could have been much better without sacrificing its "extreme simplicity."
* [see the second edition!]
*
* Many C programmers use this function without actually testing it, or
* checking something like Knuth's Sorting and Searching, so it stuck.
* It is now found mixed with otherwise respectable code, eg. cnews. sigh.
* [see also: tpop]
*
******************************************************************************/
static inline unsigned long kr_hash(const char *str)
{
unsigned int hash;
unsigned int c;
hash = 0;
while ((c = (unsigned char) * str++)) {
hash += c;
}
return hash;
}
/******************************************************************************
* sax_hash
* ````````
* Shift, Add, XOR
*
******************************************************************************/
static inline unsigned int sax_hash(const char *key)
{
unsigned int h;
h = 0;
while (*key) {
h ^= (h << 5) + (h >> 2) + (unsigned char) * key++;
}
return h;
}
/******************************************************************************
* dek_hash
* ````````
* HISTORY
* Proposed by Donald E. Knuth in The Art Of Computer Programming Vol. 3,
* under the topic of "Sorting and Search", Chapter 6.4.
*
******************************************************************************/
static inline unsigned int dek_hash(const char *str, unsigned int len)
{
unsigned int hash;
unsigned int c;
hash = len;
c = 0;
while ((c = (unsigned int) * str++)) {
hash = ((hash << 5) ^ (hash >> 27)) ^ (c);
}
return hash;
}
/******************************************************************************
* fnv_hash
* ````````
* NOTE
* For a more fully featured and modern version of this hash, see fnv32.c
*
******************************************************************************/
static inline unsigned int fnv_hash(const char *str)
{
#define FNV_PRIME 0x811C9DC5
unsigned int hash;
unsigned int c;
hash = 0;
c = 0;
while ((c = (unsigned int) * str++)) {
hash *= FNV_PRIME;
hash ^= (c);
}
return hash;
}
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